ABOUT

Philippine Science Letters (PSL) ISSN 2094-2818 is a peer-reviewed, online, open access journal that showcases science done in the Philippines and science done by Filipinos elsewhere. Research relevant to the Philippines and the region done by non-Filipinos can also be featured. It publishes Regular Research Articles, Commentaries, and Letters to the Editor on studies in the Natural, Physical, Mathematical, Computational and Social Sciences, including those related to Agriculture, Health, Engineering, Environment, Education and Technology. Solicited Reviews will also be featured. Position Papers, White Papers, Popular Science Articles on science and technology topics, including science policy issues, are welcome. Submission of News Reports of Scientific Meetings or Events is encouraged. From time to time, PSL will feature Articles on Prominent Filipino Scientists and their work. PSL will also include brief summaries of newsworthy science articles from other publications.

Essentially there is no restriction on the length of Regular Research Articles or Reviews. Commentaries and Letters to the Editor should be limited to 1000 words. Position Papers, Popular Science Articles, Features and News Reports, to 1500 words; and White Papers, to 5000 words. A limited number of figures and tables may be included. There are no page charges, nor charges for color figures.


CO-EDITORS:
Gisela P. Padilla-Concepcion
Marine Science Institute, College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

David Hall
Science, Technology, Research, and Innovation for Development (STRIDE) Project
United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Washington, D.C., USA

Windell L. Rivera
Institute of Biology, College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Mark Gregory Robson
Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute
School of Environmental and Biological Sciences
Rutgers University
New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA


ASSOCIATE EDITORS:
Henry N. Adorna
Algorithms and Complexity Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Prospero C. Naval
Department of Computer Science, College of Engineering
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Avelino D. Raymundo
Crop Protection Cluster, College of Agriculture
University of the Philippines Los Baños
Laguna, Philippines

Kelvin S. Rodolfo
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
University of Illinois
Chicago, Illinois, USA
[Professor Emeritus]

Guillermo Q. Tabios III
Institute of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Raymond R. Tan
Chemical Engineering Department
De La Salle University
Manila, Philippines


ADJUNCT EDITOR: 
Edwin P. Abaya

Volunteer Language Editor
Alumnus, University of the Philippines (A.B.) 
and University of Chicago (Ph.D.)


EDITORIAL BOARD: 

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
Domy C. Adriano
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences
University of Georgia
Athens, Georgia, USA
[Professor Emeritus]

Rhodora R. Aldemita
International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications
SEAsiaCenter c/o International Rice Research Institute
Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines

Maria Leonora dL. Francisco
Department of Food Science and Nutrition
College of Home Economics
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Manuel M. Garcia
Gar-Del International
[Immediate Past Affiliation]
Microbiology and Food Safety Consulting
Ottawa, Canada

Gabriel O. Romero
Monsanto Philippines
Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
Porfirio M. Aliño
Marine Science Institute, College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Rhodora V. Azanza
Marine Science Institute, College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Miguel D. Fortes
Marine Science Institute, College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines
[Retired]

Cynthia T. Hedreyda
National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology
College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Leopold L. Ilag
Department of Analytical Chemistry
Stockholm University
Stockholm, Sweden

Asuncion K. Raymundo
Institute of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
University of the Philippines Los Baños
Laguna, Philippines
[Professor Emeritus]

BIOMOLECULAR SCIENCES AND GENETICS
Lourdes J. Cruz
Marine Science Institute, College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines
[Professor Emeritus]

Sevilla D. Detera-Wadleigh
National Institute of Mental Health
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Leodevico L. Ilag
Horizon Science Pty Ltd
Braeside, Victoria, Australia

Elsie C. Jimenez
Department of Physical Sciences
College of Science
University of the Philippines Baguio
Baguio City, Philippines
[Professor Emeritus]

Jeanmaire E. Molina
Department of Biology
Long Island University, Brooklyn
New York City, New York, USA

Baldomero M. Olivera
Department of Biology
University of Utah
Salt Lake City, Utah, USA

Michael D. Purugganan
Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biology
New York University
New York City, New York, USA

Rosalia C.M. Simmen
Pediatrics and Physiology & Biophysics
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

Evelyn Mae Tecson-Mendoza
Crop Science Cluster-Institute of Plant Breeding
College of Agriculture
University of the Philippines Los Baños
Laguna, Philippines
[Professor Emeritus]

CHEMICAL SCIENCES
Rigoberto C. Advincula
Department of Macromolecular Science and Engineering
Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Fabian M. Dayrit
School of Science and Engineering
Ateneo de Manila University
Quezon City, Philippines

Augustine Ignatius Doronila
Analytical and Environmental Chemistry Research Group
School of Chemistry
University Melbourne
Victoria, Australia

Carlito B. Lebrilla
Department of Chemistry
University of California, Davis
Davis, California, USA

Maribel G. Nonato
Research Center for the Natural Sciences
University of Santo Tomas
Manila, Philippines

Lawrence Que, Jr.
Department of Chemistry
University of Minnesota
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA

Consolacion Y. Ragasa
Department of Chemistry
De La Salle University
Manila, Philippines

Fortunato B. Sevilla III
Department of Chemistry, College of Science
University of Santo Tomas
Manila, Philippines

Manuel P. Soriaga
Division of Engineering and Applied Science
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, California, USA

Leah M. Tolosa-Croucher
Center for Advanced Sensor Technology Research
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Manuel O. Uy
US Agency for International Development (USAID)
Manila, Philippines

Annabelle P. Villalobos
Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development
Malvern, Pennsylvania, USA
[Retired]

Irene M. Villaseñor
Institute of Chemistry, College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

ENGINEERING SCIENCES
Alvin B. Culaba
Center for Engineering and Sustainable Development Research
College of Engineering
De La Salle University
Manila, Philippines

Francis L. de los Reyes III
Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, North Carolina, USA

Aura C. Matias
College of Engineering
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Reynaldo B. Vea
Mapúa Institute of Technology
Manila, Philippines

MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES
Alfonso M. Albano
Department of Physics
Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, USA
[Marion Reilly Professor of Physics Emeritus Research Professor]

Jose Ma. P. Balmaceda
Institute of Mathematics, College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Christopher C. Bernido
Research Center for Theoretical Physics
Central Visayan Institute Foundation
Jagna, Bohol, Philippines

Felixberto A. Buot
Computational Materials Science Center
George Mason University
Fairfax, Virginia, USA

Eduardo R. Mendoza
Center for Analysis and Modelling of Complex Systems
in Biology and Medicine
Ludwig-Maximilians University
Munich, Germany

Amador C. Muriel
Program in Mathematics, Graduate Center
City University of New York
New York City, New York, USA

Henry J. Ramos
National Institute of Physics, College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines
[Professor Emeritus] 

Roberto C. Ramos
Department of Physics
Indiana Wesleyan University
Marion, Indiana, USA

Danilo B. Romero
Laboratory for Physical Sciences
University of Maryland
College Park, Maryland, USA

Maricor N. Soriano
National Institute of Physics, College of Science
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

HEALTH SCIENCES
Pedro A. Jose
Division of Nephrology, School of Medicine
University of Maryland, Baltimore
Baltimore, Maryland, USA

Felicitas L. Lacbawan
Department of Molecular Pathology
Cleveland Clinic Main Campus
Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Xenia Tiglao-Tigno
National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute
National Institutes of Health
Bethesda, Maryland USA

Philip Ian P. Padilla
Division of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences
University of the Philippines, Visayas
Miag-ao, Iloilo, Philippines

Manuel T. Velasquez
School of Medicine and Health
George Washington University
Washington, District of Columbia, USA

SOCIAL SCIENCES
Allan B.I. Bernardo
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences
University of Macau
Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau

Ernesto M. Pernia
School of Economics
University of the Philippines Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines
[Professor Emeritus]

© 2017 Philippine Science Letters